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Jakarta REST is the solution for development of building Representational State Transfer web services on the Jakarta EE Platform. The specification is easy to learn, and it enables one to construct powerful REST APIs and it also includes APIs for working with web services as a client. As such, this specification is key to the development of microservices and cloud based applications, and it is part of the Jakarta EE Web Profile as well as the full platform.

Using the API, a web service can be developed by placing just a few annotations on a plain old Java object (POJO). The API includes annotations for performing many tasks, such as producing REST responses in specified format(s), consuming data, and performing standard data operations such as CREATE, READ, UPDATE, and DELETE. The specification also includes advanced features for development of robust REST APIs.


If using the Jakarta EE Web Profile or the full Jakarta EE Platform, Jakarta REST will be bundled so there are no additional dependencies. However, if not using either of these options, you will need to include the following dependency:


To configure an application for Jakarta REST, a class must be created which extends This class must be annotated with @ApplicationPath, supplying the String-based root path of the URI to the RESTful resources for the application. For instance, if an application name is “HelloWorld” and @ApplicationPath("resources") is specified, then the URI format to reach any web services that are registered within the HelloWorld application is http://hostname:port/HelloWorld/resources/«service-path», substituting «service-path» with the service to access. The Application class can also be utilized to enable all REST services within the application, or to specify individual web service classes.

Overview of the API

To create a basic web service resource class, only the @Path and @GET annotations are required. The @Path annotation can be placed on any Java class that will be a REST resource class, and it is used to specify the URI path that should be used to access the endpoint. The @GET annotation should be applied to a method to indicate that it must be called upon with an HTTP Get call. In the following example, assuming the use of the application name and path as specified previously, the URI to access the ping() method would be as follows:

public class JakartaEE10Resource {
    public Response ping(){
        return Response
                .ok("ping Jakarta 10")

When the URI to the service is visited, the message "ping Jakarta 10" will be displayed. The resource method can optionally include a @Path annotation, specifying a custom path for accessing the endpoint. If more than one method annotated with @GET is specified within the same resource class, then one of them must specify a string-based path in order to differentiate. If @Path("/ping") were applied to the ping() method, then the URI to access the endpoint would change to the following:

In the example above, a return type of is returned from the ping() method. Returning a Response type enables an HTTP response to be returned to the caller, indicating success or failure of a service call. For instance, the following conditional will return an OK or FAILURE status depending upon a condition:

if (valid) {
    return Response.ok("Successful").build();
} else {
    return Response.getStatus();

Although an HTTP response can be nice to receive, it is possible to return different types of data from a web service, such as a plain text or JSON. By default, Jakarta REST should negotiate with the client to determine the type of data to return. However, to explicitly specify a type of data to be returned, the @Produces annotation can be applied to the resource method and a can be applied. Applying following annotations to an resource method would result in a JSON response at the URI
http://localhost:port/HelloWorld/resources/jakartaee10/json :


Jakarta REST contains annotations for each of the common other HTTP methods: @PUT, @POST, @DELETE, @PATCH, @HEAD, and @OPTIONS. The annotation @POST is used to pass information to a web service resource. One can pass information to a web service resource in a variety of ways, and in a variety of formats. In most cases, Jakarta REST will negotiate with the client to automatically determine the type of data being passed into a service. However, in some cases it may be suitable to explicitly specify the type being consumed by the service by specifying the @Consumes annotation and passing a For instance, if a JSON payload is being passed to a web service resource in order to update a database record, the @POST annotation can be applied to the method.

public String updateService(Message message) {...}

There are various ways to pass parameters to a web service resource. They differ in the way that they are passed via the URI. A path parameter can be specified within the @Path by enclosing the parameter name within curly braces {}. If a parameter is passed in this manner, then it must be explicitly specified within the web service resource method signature by specifying @PathParam and passing the String based variable name. A web service resource method can accept zero or more parameters in this manner. In the following example, the helloService accepts a name as a path parameter:

public String helloService(@PathParam("name") String name){
    return "Hello " + name;

A query parameter can also be passed via the URI by adding a question mark character (?) at the end of the URI and explicitly delimiting each parameter with an ampersand (&) character. Query parameters are specified in format parameter_name=parameter_value. In this way, the @Path designation does not contain any variables, but the web service resource method must contain each query parameter by specifying the @QueryParam annotation and providing the name of the query parameter. For instance, to specify name from the example above as a query parameter, the URI would be

public String helloServiceQueryParams(@QueryParam("name") String name){
    return "Hello " + name;

Oftentimes web forms contain a large number of fields that need to be submitted for processing. The values from these fields could be passed to a web service resource using an HTML form and corresponding @FormParam parameters within the web service resource method definition. The @FormParam annotation works very similar to the @QueryParam, except that it reads the parameters submitted via an HTML form. The following demonstrates an HTML form that will submit to the helloService resource, passing a parameter.

        <title>Hello Page</title>
        <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
        <form action="/resources/jakartaee10/helloForm">
                What is your name: <input type="text" name="name" />

                <input type="submit" value="Say Hello" />

The associated web service resource should include @FormParam as follows:

public String helloFormParams(@FormParam("name") String name){
    return "Hello " + name;

Client API

Jakarta REST includes a client API that can be used for calling upon web service resources to obtain data, and passing data to services. The API is high level and allows easy access, but it also includes some lower level features for configuration, if needed. Most of the client API resides within the package, and the is a resource that is required for creating a new The lifecycle of a client is as follows:

  1. Obtain an instance of Client
  2. Create a WebTarget
  3. Create a request from WebTarget
  4. Submit request or obtain a prepared Invocation to submit at a later time

The following code demonstrates this workflow to call upon the HelloWorld jakartaee10 endpoint:

Client client = ClientBuilder.newClient();
Response res ="http://localhost:8080/HelloWorld/resources/jakartaee10")
System.out.println("Status + " + res.getStatus());

The client enables chaining of methods using a builder pattern to perform tasks such as setting properties for a Client, passing parameters to a service, and so forth.

Response res ="http://localhost:8080/HelloWorld/resources/jakartaee10/hello")
     .queryParam("name", "Duke")

The use of WebTarget enables the compilation of complex web service endpoints. Using a builder pattern, a complex URI can be constructed by adding path segments, as needed. For instance, a base WebTarget can be created, and then paths can be added to it by calling upon the WebTarget path() method and passing String based path segments as follows:

WebTarget base ="http://localhost:8080/HelloWorld/resources/jakartaee10");
Response response = base.path("hello").path("Duke")
        .queryParam("name", "Duke")
 System.out.println("Status + " + response.readEntity(String.class));

There are more features available using Jakarta REST clients. To learn additional information please refer to the specification documentation.

Additional Features

Jakarta REST is a mature specification, and as such, it contains a number of features that provide advanced configuration and use of RESTful web services enabling flexibility and extensibility. One such feature is called a “provider”, and providers enable the use of cross cutting actions within Jakarta REST. A provider can be used to take a specific action based upon an event or a type action that occurs when a service resource is invoked. For instance, a provider can be used to automatically convert an HTTP payload to a Java object, or vice versa. Providers can be automatically registered with an application by specifying the @Provider annotation on the provider class implementation, or they can be manually registered.

Jakarta REST contains a number of default providers that can be used out of the box. Two such providers that are oftentimes used are filters and interceptors. Filters enable cross cutting actions to take place such as automatic logging or request validation, when certain events occur. There is a way to prioritize which filters are invoked and also to specify ordering of invocations. Interceptors also are initiated in a similar manner as filters, but the primary use of interceptors is to intercept requests and manipulate HTTP payloads.

Asynchronous processing can provide the end user with a better experience, as it can greatly improve the performance of an application. Jakarta REST provides asynchronous processing for both the client and the server. On the server, asynchronous processing enables the resource method to send a message to Jakarta REST to indicate that a response is forthcoming at some point in the future. This allows the client to suspend the connection, perform other tasks, and then resume the connection to check back on the pending future response occasionally. In a similar manner, the client API can request an async response from a web service, returning a Future object. The Future can then be checked upon and process a response once it returns.

Server sent events provide a one-way communication based on the HTTP protocol from the server to the client. The connection is long-running and remains open, enabling multiple messages to be sent. Server sent events include both a Client and a Server API. The Client API uses an SseEventSource object to register an event consumer to perform some action on an event. The Server API uses the @Produces annotation to indicate that MediaType.SERVER_SENT_EVENTS will be produced by the web service resource. An object known as an SseEventSink along with an Sse object are injected into the method, and they enable the server to send multiple messages to the client using an open text/event-stream. A SseBroadcaster can be created by calling upon Sse.newBroadcaster(), and it provides the ability to broadcast a message to all registered consumers.


Jakarta REST provides an easy-to-use API for developing RESTful web services for Jakarta EE. REST can be configured by adding an Application class and specifying a root path which can be used to access web service resources. The @Path annotation can be placed on a class to designate it as a Jakarta REST resource, and methods annotated with @GET, @POST, or other HTTP request types can be used to create web service resources. Web services can be used to produce or consume data. There is also a full featured client available with Jakarta REST, as well as advanced features such as asynchronous invocation and server sent events.

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